Monday, May 1, 2017

Multimedia Database Application

Multimedia Database Application
Assistant Professor, RRMK Arya Mahila,  Pathankot

Assistant Professor, RRMK Arya Mahila,  Pathankot

In this paper we describe about the learning and technology world which utilizes multimedia database and also describes how it increases the quality of database that contain multimedia information. Multimedia database handle various data types at a single platform that makes it more effective in comparison to traditional data base. Here in this paper the description of various multimedia databases utilization in innovations are to be given like support English distance learning, 3d murale and mpge7.

KEYWORDS : Multimedia Database, Multimedia, Classroom Teaching

For the past few decades, there has been a significant proliferation of digital media. The growth of  the  Internet  and  the  development  of  streaming-video  technologies  have  increased  educators’ ability  to  execute  teaching  strategies  to  meet  a  multiplicity  of  student  learning  styles  [1]. However, the huge amount of multimedia data and information could also challenge educators to efficiently search, browse, access, use, and store the data for their classroom teaching.   Digital  media  benefit  students’ learning  in  many  different  ways.  The  developments  in  computer technology  and  digital  video  along  with  broadband  technologies  have  offered  students  new  and improved   learning   opportunities. However,  today’s  multimedia  databases  contain  much more  than  just  text  and  numbers--they include  images,  sounds,  video,  or  other  scanned  documents,  and/or  data.  Many  educators  may still be found teaching or searching for their information with conventional methods, but often the conventional  methods  do  not  function  well  with  multimedia  data.  Educators  need  to  effectively interact and manage a variety of digital media files, too. The purpose of this study is to review the current applications of multimedia databases in teaching and learning, and further discuss some of the  issues  or  concerns  that  educators  may  have  while  incorporating  multimedia  data  to  their classrooms.  This  study  is  not  meant  to  discuss  the design  or  technical  issues  of  multimedia databases   (e.g.,   indexing,   querying,   or   retrieving data),   rather   to   discuss   from   practical perspectives  related  to  the  applications,  concerns or  issues  that  educators  may  have  while incorporating multimedia data into their teaching, and to further discuss some tips and strategies that  educators  can  use  to  search,  access,  and  store  multimedia  data  more  effectively  for  their classroom teaching.

 Definitions: Multimedia vs. Multimedia Database With  an  increased  availability  of  digital  information  options  today,  a  commonly  accepted definition  of multimedia  is  a  combination  of  different  media  (i.e.,  text,  pictures,  sounds,  video, animations,   etc.)   used   to   present   multimodal   information   in   conjunction   with   computer technology  [1].  Due  to  the  growing  delivery  of  media  by  computer  and  the  merging  of increasingly powerful computer-based authoring tools with Internet connectivity, it seems that the term “multimedia” is now firmly associated with computer-based delivery. Although the term has not  always  been  associated  with  computers  [3],  Gonzalez  et  al.  [4]  asserted  that  “multimedia cannot  be  experienced  without  the  technology  because  it  is  the  technology  that  creates  the experience” .
A multimedia database is a collection of related multimedia data. Common multimedia data types that can be found in a multimedia database include the following:  
•Graphics: drawing, sketches, and illustrations
•Images: color and black & white pictures, photographs, maps and paintings
•Animation sequences: animated images or graphic objects
•Video:  a  sequence  of  images  (frames),  typically  recording  a  real-life  event  and  usually produced by a video recorder
•Audio: generated from an aural recording device
•Composite multimedia: a combination of two or more of the above data types [5]
Among  various  media  types,  media  can  be  divided  into  two  major  classes:  Continuous  and discrete  [6].  Media  that  are  changing  with  time  such  as  audio  and  video  are  called  continuous media;  and  time-independent  media  such  as  text,  still  images,  and  graphics  belong  to  discrete media [6].
Understanding Multimedia Database Characteristics
A  multimedia  database  contains  various  data  types  such  as  text,  images,  graphic  objects
(including   pictures,   drawings   and   illustrations),   animation   sequences,   video   and   audio. Additionally, Kalipsiz [6] summarized some characteristics of multimedia data as below:
•Lack  of  structure:  Multimedia  data  often  are  not  quite  structured;  therefore,  standard indexing and/content-based search and retrieval may not be available.
•Temporality:  Different multimedia data types  have  different  requirements.  For  example, some multimedia data types such as video, audio, and animation sequences have temporal requirements  that  have  implications  on  their  storage,  manipulation  and  presentation,  but images, video and graphics data have spatial constraints in terms of their content.
•Massive  Volume:  Usually,  the  data  size  of  multimedia  is  large  such  as  video;  therefore, multimedia data often require a large storage device
•Logistics:  Non-standard  media  can  complicate  processing.  For  example,  a  multimedia database application requires using compression algorithms.
Multimedia Database Applications
Multimedia  database  applications  are  different  from  the  traditional  database  applications  in  the structure  of  the  multimedia  objects  and  media  where  the  multimedia  objects  are  stored  and retrieved [7].
Multimedia data is diverse with different characteristics.  Because of the audio-visual nature of multimedia  data  types,  they  are  usually  complex  data  composed  of  other  data  that  can  also  be complex.   Aygun,   et   al.   [7]   indicated   that   multimedia   objects   are   multidimensional   and hierarchically structured, and can have some relations among them. For example, image data does not  have  temporal  behavior  because  there  is  no  time  associated  with  it,  while  video  has  both temporal  and  spatial  behavior  because  the  image  sequences  of  the  video  should  be  displayed  in order and in some dedicated time [7].

Knowing  how  to  best  use  and  apply  multimedia  database  for  classroom  teaching  can  be  challenging  for  teachers.  However,  to  use  a  multimedia  database,  teachers  do  not  have  to  be  multimedia  experts.  Although  multimedia  data  are  diverse  and  complex  in  their  structure,  teachers  can  still  apply  multimedia  data  from  databases  to  facilitate  their  classroom  teaching,  whether in traditional face-to-face or distance education courses.

Face-To-Face Courses -
Multimedia databases are capable of reinforcing the traditional face-to-face classroom. The use of multimedia  data  can  foster  and  develop  cognitive  engagement  through  the  ability  to  attract  and hold  students’  attention  and  focus  [1].  For  example,  Microsoft  Word’s  grammar  checker  is  a multimedia  database  application  [8].  If  a  student  makes  a  spelling  or  grammar  error,  the system will show the error and can further correct the mistake.  

Multimedia  databases  can  not  only  be  used  to  help  students  integrate  interrelated  content  areas, but also make learning more meaningful. For example, sound or auditory applications in teaching may   actively   engage   students   in   analyzing,   synthesizing   and   evaluating   information   and constructing  knowledge  [9].  Using  multimedia  databases,  students  can  ask  questions,  interpret information,   find   answers,   then   further   foster   their   critical   thinking   and   construct   their knowledge.  

The World Wide Web has enabled access to numerous multimedia databases. The Internet itself is the largest multimedia database. Abundant Internet resources provide teachers with multimedia databases   as   cognitive   tools   and   enable   teachers   to   integrate   multimedia   data   into   their instruction.  

Distance Education/E-Learning Courses  -
With the growing amount of users on the Internet, distance education courses have become more and more available and popular [8]. Distance education is commonly defined as a formal learning activity  that  occurs  when  students  and  instructors are  separated  by  geographical  distance  or  by time  and  is  often  supported  by  technology  such  as  television,  videotape,  computers,  Internet  or mail.  In  order  to  facilitate  the  teaching  and  learning  environment,  web  browsers,  audio/video communication tools and data conferencing tools are widely used also [10]. Multimedia databases can not only create enormous opportunities for improving the instructional process,  but  also  help  shape  teachers’  consciousness  and  perception  in  using  information  to enhance  the  learning  environment.  For  example,  Wang  and  Lin  [8]  developed  a  novel  English distance learning system through multimedia database and Internet technologies to store English articles, dialogs, videos, and also mistakes that students make. Because of the database, teachers can  understand  the  most  frequent  mistakes,  and  students  can improve  and  practice  their  English abilities in a realistic learning environment through several distinct approaches.

Because technology continues to change dramatically, the different data types may require special methods   for   optimal   storage,   access, indexing,   and  retrieval   [6].   Information   retrieval   is dependent upon the design and implementation of systems.  

• Concept-based approach: Concepts are subsequently  used to interpret the content of the data and to retrieve the data itself. “This is usually an application domain specific process and occasionally requires the intervention of the user” [18] (p. 1/3). For efficient browsing and searching, querying the multimedia database is an important part of a database system.  According  to  Kalipsiz  [6],  multimedia  data  queries  can  be  divided  into  four different  types. They are :  a)  Keyword  query  b)  Semantic query  c)  Visual  query d)  Video query.
 Keyword querying only uses well-defined queries, while semantic and visual querying are designed to use the fuzzy (more approximate, less precise) query method [6].  Querying  in  a  multimedia  database  is  quite  different  from  querying  in  standard  alphanumeric databases. If querying conventional databases, which consist of text or numerical data, a query is often  represented  in  the  form  of  text  or  a  numerical  value  [20].  Besides  the  fact  that  browsing takes on added importance in a multimedia environment, queries can contain multimedia objects input by the user; the results of these queries are based not on perfect matches but on degrees of similarity [21].  While a content-based approach is preferable in a multimedia database system [22], Yoshitaka & Ichikawa  [20]  further  indicated  a  query-by-example approach  for  content-based  representation, which is a method of query specification and allows a user to specify a query by giving examples. For example, an image object is retrieved by the shape of objects, by specifying colors and their spatial distribution in the image, or by a specific pattern appearing in an image.

 Computer   technology   and   Internet   resources   provide teachers   with   both   challenges   and opportunities in teaching  with  multimedia  databases.  Since  teachers  are  the  key  to  providing quality  learning  experiences  for  students,  they  need  to  make  the  best  use  of  multimedia information  within  the  framework  of  educational  theories  and  learning  principles.  The  growing popularity  of  multimedia  sources  suggests  that  educators  will  need  to  conceptualize  these  new possibilities  of  emerging  technologies  and  incorporate  them  within  a  concrete  framework  of teaching  and  learning.  For  effective  teaching  and  learning,  teachers  are  also  required  to  search and present the best selection of multimedia resources. However,  multimedia  information  and  databases  are  quite  different  from  standard  traditional alphanumeric  databases;  therefore,  this  study  provided  a  brief  introduction  to  the  effects  of multimedia  databases  in  classroom  teaching  and  highlighted  some  of  the  concerns  or  problems that  teachers  may  have  faced  in  their  instruction  utilizing  multimedia  databases.  Multimedia information  and  databases  will  be  valuable  for  teachers  who  want  to  integrate  multimedia resources into curriculum and teach with databases as cognitive tools. With effective application of  multimedia  information  and  databases,  teachers  will  be  better  able  to  achieve  successful instructional outcomes for various content areas.  

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